• 6 November 2012



–          Location: Middle East. Cyprus is an island in the Mediterranean Sea, and at the south of Turkey.

–          Total area: 9,251 km2

–          Capital: Nicosia

–          Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

–          Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity; droughts

–          Environment current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island’s largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization




–          Population: 1,138,071 (July 2012 est.)

–          Median age: 35.1 years

–          Population growth rate: 1.571%

–          Birth rate: 11.44 births/1.000 population

–          Death rate: 6.48 deaths/1.000 population

–          Urban population: 70% of total population

–          Rate of urbanization: 1.3% annual rate of change

–          Ethnic groups: Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% (2001 census)

–      Languages: Greek (official),Turkish (official),  English

–          Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, other 4%

–          Literacy rate:  97.6% (male: 98.9%, female: 96.3%).




–          Government type: Republic

–          Independence: 16 August 1960 (from the UK);

Note: Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are only recognized by Turkey.

–          Constitution: 16 August 1960

note: from December 1963, the Turkish Cypriots no longer participated in the government; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and for better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently since the mid-1960s; in 1975, following the 1974 Turkish intervention, Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the “Turkish Federated State of Cyprus,” which they then called the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)” when the Turkish Cypriots declared independence in 1983; a new constitution for the “TRNC” passed by referendum on 5 May 1985, although the “TRNC” remains unrecognized by any country other than Turkey.

–          Suffrage: universal.



A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to seize control of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot-occupied area declared itself the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” (“TRNC”), but it is recognized only by Turkey. The election of a new Cypriot president in 2008 served as the impetus for the UN to encourage both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities to reopen unification negotiations. In September 2008, the leaders of the two communities began negotiations under UN auspices aimed at reuniting the divided island. The talks are ongoing and the leaders continue to meet regularly. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis – the body of common rights and obligations – applies only to the areas under the internationally recognized government, and is suspended in the areas administered by Turkish Cypriots. However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of European Union states.

The area of the Republic of Cyprus under government control has a market economy dominated by the service sector, which accounts for four-fifths of GDP.

Tourism, financial services, and real estate are the most important sectors. Erratic growth rates over the past decade reflect the economy’s reliance on tourism, the profitability of which often fluctuates with political instability in the region and economic conditions in Western Europe. Nevertheless, the economy in the area under government control has grown at a rate well above the EU average since 2000. Cyprus joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM2) in May 2005 and adopted the euro as its national currency on 1 January 2008.

An aggressive austerity program in the preceding years, aimed at paving the way for the euro, helped turn a soaring fiscal deficit (6.3% in 2003) into a surplus of 1.2% in 2008, and reduced inflation to 4.7%. This prosperity came under pressure in 2009, as construction and tourism slowed in the face of reduced foreign demand triggered by the ongoing global financial crisis. Although Cyprus lagged behind its EU peers in showing signs of stress from the global crisis, the economy tipped into recession in 2009, contracting by 1.7%, and has been slow to bounce back since, posting an anemic growth rate of 1.0% in 2010. The economy experienced no economic growth in 2011.

Serious Cypriot financial sector problems surfaced in early 2011 as the Greek fiscal crisis and euro zone debt crisis deepened. Two of Cyprus’s biggest banks are among the largest holders of Greek bonds in Europe and have a substantial presence in Greece through bank branches and subsidiaries. A liquidity squeeze is choking the financial sector and the real economy as many global investors doubt the Cypriot economy can weather the EU crisis. Cyprus’s borrowing costs have risen steadily because of its exposure to Greek debt. The budget deficit is on the rise and reached 7.4% of GDP in 2011, a violation of the EU’s budget deficit criteria – no more than 3% of GDP. In response to the country’s deteriorating finances and serious risk of contagion from the Greek debt crisis, Nicosia is promising to implement measures to cut the cost of the state payroll, curb tax evasion, and revamp social benefits.


Economy of the area administered by Turkish Cypriots: The Turkish Cypriot economy has roughly half the per capita GDP of the south, and economic growth tends to be volatile, given the north’s relative isolation, bloated public sector, reliance on the Turkish lira, and small market size. The Turkish Cypriots are heavily dependent on transfers from the Turkish Government. Ankara directly finances about one-third of the Turkish Cypriot “administration’s” budget. Aid from Turkey has exceeded $400 million annually in recent years. The Turkish Cypriot economy experienced a sharp slowdown in 2008-09 due to the global financial crisis and to its reliance on British and Turkish tourism, both of which declined due to the recession. The Turkish Cypriot budget deficit also deteriorated in 2009 due to decreased state revenues and increased government expenditures on public sector salaries and social services. The Turkish Cypriot economy declined about 0.6% in 2010.


–          Currency : Euro

–          GDP (Gross Domestic Product): $24. 95 billion (2011 est.)

–          GDP-per capita: $29,400 (2011 est.)

–          Real growth rate: 0.5% (2011 est.)

–          Unemployment rate: 7.7% (2011 est.)

–          Public debt: 65.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

–          Inflation rate: 3.5% (2011 est.)

–          Central Bank discount rate: 1.75% (31/12/2011)



–          Agriculture : citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables; poultry, pork, lamb; dairy, cheese

–          Industries: tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum production, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone and clay products

–          Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (2011 est.)


Energy sector:


–          Electricity:

  • Production: 4.887 billion kWh
  • Consumption: 4.698 billion kWh
  • Exports: 0 kWh
  • Imports: 0 kWh


–          Crude Oil:

  • Production: 0 bbl/day
  • Exports: 0 bbl/day
  • Imports: 0 bbl/day
  • Proved reserves: 0 bbl


–          Refined Petroleum products:

  • Production: 0 bbl/day
  • Consumption: 58,450 bbl/day (2011 est.)
  • Exports: 0 bbl/day
  • Imports: 60,310 bbl/day (2008 est.)


–          Natural gas:

  • Production:  0 cu m
  • Consumption: 0 cu m
  • Exports: 0cu m
  • Imports: 0 cu m
  • Proved reserves: 0 cu m


–          Exports: $2.165 billion

  • Commodities: citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, clothing
  • Main exports partners: Greece (26.2%), UK (10.2%), Germany (5,6%).


–          Imports: $ 8.034 billion

  • Commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, machinery transport and equipment
  • Main imports partners: Greece (21.5%), Israel (10.4%), UK (9.2%), Italy (8.3%), Germany (8.1%), France (5.7%), China (4.8%), Netherlands (4.6%).


–          Reserves of foreign exchange and gold : $1.207 billion


–          External debt: $ 35.87 billion (2011 est.)


–          Stock of direct foreign investment :

  • At home : $28.2 billion
  • Abroad : $13.41 billion




–          Airports : 15

–          Roadways : 14,671 km

–          Ports and terminals :

  • area under government control: Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos
  • area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Famagusta, Kyrenia


  • 18 October 2012




–          Location: Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey

–          Total area: 131,957 km2

–          Capital: Athens

–          Natural resources: lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential

–          Natural hazards: severe earthquakes and volcanism: Santorini (elev. 367 m) has been deemed a “Decade Volcano” by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; although there have been very few eruptions in recent centuries, Methana and Nisyros in the Aegean are classified as historically active.

–          Environment current issues: air pollution; water pollution




–          Population: 10,767,827 (July 2012 est.)

–          Median age: 42.8 years

–          Population growth rate: 0.06%

–          Birth rate: 9.08 births/1.000 population

–          Death rate: 10.8 deaths/1.000 population

–          Urban population: 61% of total population

–          Rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change

–          Ethnic groups: Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (2001 census)

–      Languages: Greek (official) 99%, other (includes English and French) 1%

–          Religions: Greek Orthodox (official) 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%

–          Literacy rate:  96% (male: 97.8%, female: 94.2%).




–          Government type: Parliamentary Republic

–          Independence: 1830 (from Ottoman Empire)

–          Constitution: 11 June 1975

–          Suffrage: universal.




Greece has a capitalist economy with a public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP about two-thirds that of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 15% of GDP. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly in agricultural and unskilled jobs.

Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual GDP. The Greek economy grew by nearly 4% per year between 2003 and 2007, due partly to infrastructural spending related to the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, and in part to an increased availability of credit, which has sustained record levels of consumer spending.

But the economy went into recession in 2009 as a result of the world financial crisis, tightening credit conditions, and Athens’ failure to address a growing budget deficit. The economy contracted by 2.3% in 2009, 3.5% in 2010, and 6.0% in 2011. Greece violated the EU’s Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criterion of no more than 3% of GDP from 2001 to 2006, but finally met that criterion in 2007-08, before exceeding it again in 2009, with the deficit reaching 15% of GDP.

Austerity measures reduced the deficit to 11% of GDP in 2010 and about 9% in 2011. Eroding public finances, inaccurate and misreported statistics, and consistent underperformance on reforms prompted major credit rating agencies in late 2009 to downgrade Greece’s international debt rating, and has led the country into a financial crisis.

Under intense pressure from the EU and international market participants, the government adopted a medium-term austerity program that includes cutting government spending, decreasing tax evasion, reworking the health-care and pension systems, and reforming the labor and product markets. Athens, however, faces long-term challenges to push through unpopular reforms in the face of widespread unrest from the country’s powerful labor unions and the general public.

In April 2010 a leading credit agency assigned Greek debt its lowest possible credit rating; in May 2010, the International Monetary Fund and Euro zone governments provided Greece emergency short- and medium-term loans worth $147 billion so that the country could make debt repayments to creditors.

In exchange for the largest bailout ever assembled, the government announced combined spending cuts and tax increases totaling $40 billion over three years, on top of the tough austerity measures already taken.

Greece, however, struggled to meet 2010 targets set by the EU and the IMF, especially after Eurostat – the EU’s statistical office – revised upward Greece’s deficit and debt numbers for 2009 and 2010.

European leaders and the IMF agreed in October 2011 to provide Athens a second bailout package of $169 billion.

The second deal however, calls for Greece’s creditors to write down a significant portion of their Greek government bond holdings.

In exchange for the second loan Greece has promised to introduce an additional $7.8 billion in austerity measures during 2013-15.

However, these massive austerity cuts are lengthening Greece’s economic recession and depressing tax revenues.

Greece’s lenders are calling on Athens to step up efforts to increase tax collection, privatize public enterprises, and rein in health spending, and are planning to give Greece more time to shore up its economy and finances. Many investors doubt that Greece can sustain fiscal efforts in the face of a bleak economic outlook, public discontent, and political instability.


–          Currency : Euro

–          GDP (Gross Domestic Product): $298.1 billion (2011 est.)

–          GDP-per capita: $26,600 (2011 est.)

–          Real growth rate: -6.9% (2011 est.)

–          Unemployment rate: 17.3% (2011 est.)

–          Public debt: 161.7% of GDP (2011 est.)

–          Inflation rate: 3.3% (2011 est.)

–          Central Bank discount rate: 1.75% (31/12/2011)



–          Agriculture : wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products

–          Industries: tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum

–          Industrial production growth rate: -8.5%


Energy sector:


–          Electricity:

  • Production: 57.11 billion kWh
  • Consumption: 58.71 billion kWh
  • Exports: 2.571 billion kWh
  • Imports: 8.571 billion kWh


–          Crude Oil:

  • Production: 1,751 bbl/day (2011 est.)
  • Exports: 19,960 bbl/day (2009 est.)
  • Imports: 355,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)
  • Proved reserves: 10 million bbl (2012 est.)


–          Refined Petroleum products:

  • Production: 440,200 bbl/day (2009 est.)
  • Consumption: 343,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
  • Exports: 161,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)
  • Imports: 140,800 bbl/day (2009 est.)


–          Natural gas:

  • Production:  1 million cu m (2010 est.)
  • Consumption: 4.737 billion cu m (2011 est.)
  • Exports: 4.762 billion cu m (2011 est.)
  • Imports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
  • Proved reserves: 991.1 million cu m (2012 est.)


–          Current account balance: $-29.32 billion (2011 est.)


–          Exports: $28.16 billion

  • Commodities: food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles
  • Main exports partners: Italy (9.6%), Germany (8%), Bulgaria (5.6%), US (5.1%), China (5.1%), Switzerland (4.7%), Belgium (4.7%), (Poland 4.4%).


–          Imports: $ 566.04 billion

  • Commodities: machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
  • Main imports partners: Germany (10.7%), Italy (9.3%), China (7.1%), Netherlands (5.5%), France (5.1%), Austria (4.5%), Russia (4.2%), and Czech Republic (4.1%).


–          Reserves of foreign exchange and gold : $6.9 billion


–          External debt: $583.3 billion (2011 est.)


–          Stock of direct foreign investment :

  • At home : $35.45 billion
  • Abroad : $41.67 billion




–          Airports : 82

–          Railways : 2,548 km

–          Roadways : 116,711 km

–          Ports and terminals : Agioi Theodoroi, Aspropyrgos, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki


  • 10 October 2012



–          Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula

–          Total area: 1,001,450 km2

–          Capital: Cairo

–          Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc.

–          Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called Khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms

–          Environment current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources.




–          Population: 83,688,164 (July 2012 est.)

–          Median age: 24.6 years

–          Population growth rate: 1.922%

–          Birth rate: 24.22 births/1.000 population

–          Death rate: 4.8 deaths/1.000 population

–          Urban population: 43.4% of total population

–          Rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change

–          Ethnic groups: Egyptian 99.06%, other 0.04%

–          Languages: Arabic (official), English, French

–          Religions: Sunni Muslim 90%, Coptic 9% and other Christian 1%

–          Literacy rate:  72%  (male: 80.3%, female: 63.5% ).




–          Government type: Republic

–          Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status)

–          Constitution: provisional constitution passed by referendum 19 March 2011; adopted 30 March 2011.

–          Suffrage: universal.




Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt’s economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel Nasser but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar El-Sadat and Mohamed Hosni Mubarak.

Cairo from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth. Despite the relatively high levels of economic growth in recent years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remained poor and contributed to public discontent.

After unrest erupted in January 2011, the Egyptian Government drastically increased social spending to address public dissatisfaction, but political uncertainty at the same time caused economic growth to slow significantly, reducing the government’s revenues.

Egyptian youth and opposition groups, inspired by events in Tunisia leading to overthrow of the government there, organized a “Day of Rage” campaign on 25 January 2011 (Police Day) to include non-violent demonstrations, marches, and labor strikes in Cairo and other cities throughout Egypt. Protester grievances focused on police brutality, state emergency laws, lack of free speech and elections, high unemployment, rising food prices, inflation, and low minimum wages.

Tourism, manufacturing, and construction are among the hardest hit sectors of the Egyptian economy, and economic growth is likely to remain slow at least through 2012. The government is utilizing foreign exchange reserves to support the Egyptian pound and Egypt may seek a loan from the International Monetary Fund.


–          Currency : Egyptian pound

–          GDP (Gross Domestic Product): $525.6 billion

–          GDP-per capita: $6,600

–          Real growth rate : 1.8%

–          Unemployment rate: 12.2%

–          Public debt: 83.4% of GDP

–          Inflation rate : 10.2% (2011)

–          Central Bank discount rate: 8.68%


Production :

–          Agriculture : cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats.

–          Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

–          Industrial production growth rate : 0.5%


Energy sector:

–          Electricity:

  • Production: 123.9 billion kWh
  • Consumption: 109.1 billion kWh
  • Exports: 1.022 billion kWh
  • Imports: 896 million kWh

–          Oil:

  • Production: 662,500 bbl/day
  • Consumption: 740,000 bbl/day
  • Exports : 163,000 million bbl/day
  • Imports: 177,200 bbl/day
  • Proved reserves : 4.4 billion bbl


–          Natural gas:

  • Production:  62.69 billion cu m
  • Consumption: 44.37 billion cu m
  • Exports: 18.32 billion cu m
  • Imports: 0 cu m
  • Proved reserves : 2.186 trillion cu m


–          Current account balance : $-5.422 billion


–          Exports: $27.91 billion

  • Commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food.
  • Main exports partners: Italy (8.8%), Germany (5.5%), US (5.5%), India (5.2%), Saudi Arabia (5.1%), Spain (4.7%), France (4.5%).


–          Imports: $ 53.97 billion

  • Commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels.
  • Main imports partners : China (11.5%), US (9.8%), Italy (5.6%), Germany (4.9%), Turkey (4.4%), Brazil (4.1%)


–          Reserves of foreign exchange and gold : $183.1 billion


–          External debt : $17.66 billion



–          Stock of direct foreign investment :

  • At home : $72.61 billion
  • Abroad : $6.073 billion



Transportation :

–          Airports : 82

–          Railways : 5,083 km

–          Roadways : 65,050 km

–          Ports and terminals : Ayn Sukhnah, Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Sidi Kurayr, Suez


  • 28 September 2012




–          Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

–          Total area: 2,381,741 km2

–          Capital: Algiers

–          Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc.

–          Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season.

–          Environment current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water.




–          Population: 37,367,226 (July 2012 est.)

–          Median age: 28.1 years

–          Population growth rate: 1.165%

–          Birth rate: 16.64 births/1.000 population

–          Death rate: 4.72 deaths/1.000 population

–          Urban population: 66% of total population

–          Rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change

–          Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

–          Languages: Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber dialect

–          Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

–          Literacy rate:  69.9%  (male: 79.6%, female: 60.1% ).




–          Government type: Republic

–          Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France ).

–          Constitution: 08 September 1973 .

–          Suffrage: universal.




Algeria’s economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country’s socialist post-independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy.

Algeria has struggled to develop industries outside of hydrocarbons in part because of high costs and an inert state bureaucracy.

Long-term economic challenges include diversification from hydrocarbons, relaxing state control of the economy, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.


–          Currency : Dinar

–          GDP (Gross Domestic Product): $190.7 billion

–          GDP-per capita: $7,400

–          Real growth rate : 2.5%

–          Unemployment rate: 10%

–          Public debt: 8.1% of GDP

–          Inflation rate : 4.5% (2011)

–          Central Bank discount rate: 4%


Production :

–          Agriculture : wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

–          Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

–          Industrial production growth rate : – 3.1%


Energy sector:

–          Electricity:

  • Production: 40.11 billion kWh
  • Consumption: 30.5 billion kWh
  • Exports: 323 million kWh
  • Imports: 49 million kWh

–          Oil:

  • Production: 2.078 million bbl/day
  • Consumption: 312,000 bbl/day
  • Exports : 1.694 million bbl/day
  • Imports: 18,180 bbl/day
  • Proved reserves : 12.2 billion bbl


–          Natural gas:

  • Production:  85.14 billion cu m
  • Consumption: 39.86 billion cu m
  • Exports: 55.28 billion cu m
  • Imports: 0 cu m
  • Proved reserves : 4.502 trillion cu m


–          Current account balance : $29.09 billion


–          Exports: $72.66 billion

  • Commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%
  • Main exports partners: US (23.3%), Spain (12.2%), Canada (9.5%), France (9.5%), Brazil (5.4%), Netherlands (5.4%), Germany (4.3%), Italy (4.1%).


–          Imports: $44.16 billion

  • Commodities: capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods.
  • Mainimports partners : France (18.5%), China (10.4%), Italy (9.5%), Spain (8%), Germany (4.5%).


–          Reserves of foreign exchange and gold : $183.1 billion


–          External debt : $4.699 billion



–          Stock of direct foreign investment :

  • At home : $22.5 billion
  • Abroad : $1.914 billion



Transportation :

–          Airports : 142

–          Railways : 3,973 km

–          Roadways : 111,261 km

–          Ports and terminals : Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda.