OPEC Summit: At Vienna is seeking agreement on oil production

  • 29 November 2016

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Cop 22: Marrakech new agreements to combat global warming

  • 20 November 2016

The Cop 22, the twenty-second edition of the annual conference on climate change envisaged by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, was held from 7 to 18 November. It was chaired by the Minister for Foreign Affairs Salaheddine Mezouar and has been a deepening of key points present in the Agreement of Paris, ambitiously, has set itself the goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 50% by 2050 and 100% by 2100.

To anticipate the conference on 4 November, at sunset, the Eiffel Tower in Paris and the Hassan Tower in Rabat have lit green at the same time and have given way to games of light, accompanied by ethnic and classical music, enliven political meetings remembering the four elements, namely air, fire, earth and water. A little less than a year after the Cop 21 in Paris, the main challenge of the delegations was able to operationalize the agreement signed in France, which came into force on 4 November.

In the capital transalpine heads of state and government of 195 participating nations signed in fact a text in which the “trajectory” has been shown that the planet will have to follow if he wants to limit the damage caused by climate change. In particular, it is able to maintain growth in the average global temperature over land and ocean surface to a maximum of 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the century, compared to pre-industrial levels.

The Paris Agreement had gathered a global consensus on:

1) Monitoring every five years on emission cuts. The first scheduled for 2023.

2) Funds from private and public industrial countries in the world to spread green technologies and de carbonize the economy.

3) Reimbursement to cover the financial losses caused by environmental and climate change in countries that are often the poorest.

The largest producers of oil and gas have consistently opposed Paris Agreement, China has also asked that the checks were not made by specific international organizations but that each state verifies its emissions. Another important issue is the problem of the State about emissions from air travel and ships between Beijing and Rome. No country wants to count them among their own and so the exhaust gases of aircraft and ships to escape controls.

The nature of the agreement was not binding, so no one was really forced to do anything, because of the lack of penalties for not committed concretely about what signed.

The problem of global warming has become more urgent since the Om, the ‘World Meteorological Organization, said that “2016 will be the warmest year on record, temperatures were in the upper average of 1.2 degrees to the levels preindustrial, among the causes El Nino (climate phenomenon that causes a strong warming of Pacific Ocean waters south and east towards the center in December and January, causing flooding, severe problems of agriculture ‘Latin America) and carbon dioxide emissions ” .

The Cop 22 meeting was held in Morocco because together with Tunisia, Algeria, Portugal, Spain and to other African countries, could turn into the desert before the end of the century. Some territories of Italy and Greece would become semi-desert.

The event scenario is the “ocher city”, Marrakech, with characteristic streets and its boundless charm. The village is ready, the city in turmoil. Bah Ighli, the headquarters of the international climate conference COP22, has welcomed more than twenty thousand participants from 196 countries of the world. On more than 300 thousand square meters of settlement set up in the manner “Berber”, with 55 white curtains, there are two main areas, the blue one, which is the UN zone, and the green one, the domain of civil society committed to the defence of ‘environment. Cost more than 430 million dirhams, it has mobilized nearly 200 local construction companies. In view of the important summit, as well as make changes from the artistic point of view, the city wanted to take concrete actions that demonstrate a consistent commitment in embracing the green economy, and that link to the revival of a country in difficulty and, this, coming from a part of the unstable world but ready to fight back.

Among the concrete commitments discussed in Marrakech, it is very important the decision to establish “Green Key”, an international project that awards the label “green key” hotel facilities for their efforts in the context of ecology and which has already been recognized around thirty structures in the city. Another initiative involves both Marrakech is the surrounding areas, where it was created the Garden Bio-aromatic Ourika, a green area to promote the logic of sustainable development and containing more than 50 variants of regional plants whose care was assigned to different activities involving tourists. The will to fight and overcome the mass tourism, the second source of income in Morocco, has been confirmed by the desire to promote eco-tourism and its special assets, tangible or not, together with the professionals of the tourism sector and with regions.

Red electric bus through Marrakech, connecting the main hubs of the city. In Casablanca it is already also feature ecological tram. In the ochre city, also 300 bicycles arranged in a dozen stations are available to visitors who can rent them. The project Medina Bike is part of the hundreds of initiatives to make the city greener. On 12 November, in the middle of the COP22, thousands of Moroccan volunteers are committed to planting over one million trees in a single day, along the 3,000 hectares identified in 12 regions of Morocco.

The 195 participating countries adopted a work program to implement by 2018 the Agreement signed in Paris last year, on the fight against global warming, and have set up a Green Fund to help countries in the developing world. The details in the Gabriella Ceraso service:

Maximum political commitment to fight global warming: they had already written in the final declaration the countries met in Marrakech, but from now black on white no concrete measures, but a work plan. By 2020 greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced to maximize the chances of staying within the two degrees centigrade increase in temperature, from pre-industrial levels, as enshrined in Paris. In addition, by December 2018, it will be defined the Regulation implementing the Agreement in Paris on the climate, to see how the countries will monitor their commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Among the positive elements that emerged in Marrakech is definitely the enormous emphasis given to the question of education, such as creating a culture that leads to respect for nature and leading naturally to adapt to a world in which we should consume less and address the impact of climate change. The other important aspect is of course the issue of money, which should serve to weaker countries to cope with unavoidable climate change and especially to take the path of de carbonization. Another important issue is the technology, because obviously such technology should be made available: we know that the issue of patents, of licenses for the use of certain technologies is always very important.

The Declaration was more of a political signal very strong, by all countries together, that the Paris agreement should go ahead, it speaks of irreversible process and urgency in achieving the objectives of reducing countries of emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are too timid. In 2018 the IPCC will report on how to stay on a degree and a half of global warming and we must decide how to adapt to what the scientific community tells us the goals and policies of individual countries.

The issue of reducing the global temperature had been faced with the ‘Copenhagen Accord, which was frozen due to non-adherence of the four major polluters of the world: Europe, U.S.A., India and https://www.acheterviagrafr24.com/prix-viagra-generique-pharmacie/ China. The funds, provided funds from the so-called Copenhagen Accord, they should be made available by 2020, but there is still vagueness on the part of States.

There is no doubt that there is always a risk; the consciousness of the fact that this implies solidarity is a road still to be built, because we live in an age of great contradictions and great selfishness. The goals are only reachable by a collaboration of all States. What is certain is that when it comes to weather the advances that are made always seem very slow compared to the size of the fight against global warming.

Another important issue is that of funding. On November 16, Italy, Canada, Denmark, EU, Germany, Japan, Korea, Switzerland and the USA have announced the allocation of $ 23 million for technology projects that can help these countries achieve the goals set in Paris.

Resources that will not end directly into recipients’ coffers, but will go to CTCN, Climate Technology Centre and Network, the technical structure of the United Nations that develops projects on the climate, in the context of the Paris agreement: when developing countries have needed to achieve environmental objectives, the CTCN intervenes with its more than 230 affiliated technology centres, 11 partner institutions and a network of over 200 NGOs. “We identify the technological needs and then we follow the project development up to find the funds to make it happen. This appropriation increases our possibilities of intervention,” explains Thomas Spenser of CTCN.

Also at the COP22, the donor countries have issued a joint declaration on roadmap showing how to reach the target of 100 billion dollars in favour of developing countries established by the agreement of Paris.

To facilitate its implementation at the global level, as mentioned, the COP21 requiring developed countries to provide financial resources to assist countries in developing their mitigation efforts and adaptation to climate change. In particular, the agreement calls for advanced countries to establish a concrete roadmap to reach the goal of providing, as a whole, $ 100 billion in 2020.

To develop the roadmap, given the difficulty of knowing all the factors that influence the climate finance, a group of 38 countries (including Italy) and the European Commission asked the OECD to analyse the trend of financial commitments of recent years and additional ones announced in Paris, to assume the expected level in 2020.

According to the OECD study, noting that two-year period from 2013-2014 to 2015 there was an increase of $ 26 billion to a total of 67 billion dollars, it can be assumed that, given the multiplicity of subjects and bilateral actions and multilateral, in 2020 it will be possible to reach the goal of $ 100 billion. The roadmap sets out a wide range of actions that developed countries commit themselves to implement in the coming years:

• meet its commitments and increase significantly the financial support for adaptation to climate change on the basis of the priorities expressed by developing countries;

• assist developing countries in developing and implementing ambitious plans for adaptation and mitigation, which are essential to attract investment;

• work to overcome obstacles to access to finance for climate and strengthen capacity building and environmental policies of developing countries;

• use public finance to effectively mobilize the private one, whose role is crucial, not just to achieve the goal of 100 billion, but to achieve the objectives set by the Agreement of Paris;

• cooperate with the Green Climate Fund and the Global Environment Facility to maximize the use of financial resources;

• Always put the centre of the decision making the challenge of climate change, in order to coordinate with the actions taken to achieve the 17 global objectives of sustainable development;

• improve the traceability of finance for the climate.

The problem is that, for now, the world is still far from that goal. Before Cop 21, in fact, the governments were asked to indicate some promise of reducing CO2 emissions, which were Indc calls (Intended nationally determined contribution). It was the French Government to launch the first alarm: on the basis of these commitments declared, in 2100 it will not come to 2 degrees Celsius but at +2.7. One estimate even considered optimistic by many NGOs, according to which the current Indc will lead to widely stay within the limit of 3 degrees. Which, for the Earth, it would mean a catastrophe. Precisely for this reason the associations have asked to review as soon as the promises of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Along with the renewal of Indc and the discussion on the rules for adopting the Statement of Cop 21, the third pillar of the Marrakech negotiations concerned the question of funding. I.e.: with such funds to pay the huge costs needed to adopt the energy and ecological transition in the world? In Paris it was decided to ensure an investment of at least $ 100 billion a year, until 2020. But it will be necessary to understand how to monitor these financial flows, which should benefit especially in the southern hemisphere. I.e. the nations that contribute less to climate change, but that most are paying the consequences. The hope is that the “African context” can in this way to guarantee the momentum it needs the Planet.