Migrants in the Mediterranean: the data of the ‘International Organization for Migration

  • 28 April 2016

jordan 12 flu game for salejordan 12 flu game for salejordan 12 flu game sizingair jordan 12 flu game for saleair jordan 12 flu game 2016 for salejordan 12 flu game priceair jordan 12 flu game 2016 for saleair jordan 12 flu game 2016 for salejordan 12 flu game for saleair jordan 12 flu game for salejordan 12 flu game 2016 for salejordan 12 flu game 2016 for saleair jordan 12 flu game 2016 for salejordan 12 flu game for salejordan 12 flu game for saleair jordan 12 flu game for saleair jordan 12 flu game 2016 for salejordan 12 flu game for salejordan 12 flu game for salejordan 12 flu game 2016 for saleMigrants arrived in Europe by sea between January 1 and April 25, 2016 are 181,476. A return it the IOM, International Organization for Migration, which monitors the landings along the Mediterranean Sea between the coasts of Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus.
In Italy, this figure reaches 24,894 since the beginning of 2016 to the present, 7499, and in particular between 1 and 25 April, to which should be added the 1,130 that are landing at this time in Italian ports where hotspots are active, the identification canters took the European Union and managed by Frontex, the ‘EU Agency for border control. Between 1 and 30 April 2015, in the same period last year, according to Interior Ministry data they had reached 26,228 persons, so in line with what is happening this year.
Since 2006, the International Organization for Migration is working with the Department of Civil Liberties and Immigration of the Ministry and the Italian border authorities in identifying victims of trafficking in human beings arriving by sea. In recent years, the IOM has strengthened this commitment through the signing of appropriate protocols with the Public Prosecutors General of Palermo and Reggio Calabria, and has established close cooperation with the investigating authorities, the national anti-trafficking system, the communities that are part of you and social services of the major municipalities affected by the phenomenon of landings. In 2014, IOM has expanded its activities to assist victims with the creation of two specialized anti-trafficking team, in addition to providing legal guidance to immigrants just landed on the care programs offered by law, carry on business as technical assistance in favour of the operators of the reception canters, the police and all those involved in the management of the phenomenon. These teams composed of anti-trafficking and cultural mediators of the ethnic groups most affected by the phenomenon of trafficking experts alongside IOM staff present since 2006 at major landing sites and government canters for immigration is carried out jointly with UNHCR general information on the Italian legislation on immigration and asylum. The experience gained by the IOM has confirmed the need to establish close cooperation relations with the border authorities, the medical staff and other non-governmental organizations present and engaged at landing sites to optimize the interventions of assistance to migrants and identify with timing the vulnerable deserve protection. In 2014 the number of migrants arrived on Italian shores has been a significant increase over previous years, with over 170,000 people landed: four times when compared with the figure for 2013. This trend was confirmed in 2015 with over 140,987 arrivals (31 October 2015). It is mixed migration flows, people who leave their countries in search of employment opportunities, better socio-economic conditions but also fleeing conflict, persecution and serious violations of human rights. The deterioration of the security situation in some neighbouring countries such as Libya, has aggravated a situation of grave instability that affected an area already suffering from major political and social changes and has encouraged the development of criminal and paramilitary groups who have often found in smuggling a particularly profitable business and functional to their growth and control of the territory.
The presence of IOM in the main landing sites puts the organization in a privileged position that allows you to monitor and investigate the phenomenon of trafficking and its continuous and sudden changes. However, this is a partial view which is built from the experience gained by organizations and associations concerned with the identification and assistance to victims in the area. Nevertheless, the organization believes it can make a number of recommendations and proposals for better management of the phenomenon and for a more rapid identification and protection of victims, in particular:
1. The IOM believes that a change in cultural approach to the management of the phenomenon of trafficking in human beings: it has proved necessary to experience action including the “end users” of such trade, with awareness campaigns (especially among the younger generations) that illustrate clearly what is behind the advertising of sexual services.
2. The repression of the phenomenon should not be limited to the protection of public order and decorum, but should include integrated measures to assist victims, starting with the defense of health and their safety.
3. The OIM points out the urgent need to adopt the National Plan on trafficking that would make operational effective protection of victims, including legal assistance, psychological and health. And “particularly important to increase the number of communities willing to accept the minor migrants”.
4. There should be a strengthening of the absorption capacity of the victims of trafficking who are identified as such already at the time of landing. This would ensure their immediate protection and they can be away from the exploiters, often in those vehicles barges. In this sense it would be useful to provide for the creation of protected areas, of “safe houses”, dedicated exclusively to these cases.
5. It is especially urgent to standardize the application of the share path to the judiciary. The Italian legislation is undoubtedly one of the most advanced in Europe in terms of protection of victims of trafficking, by making it possible to offer a period of reflection. In fact, some women do not want to immediately report their traffickers for fear of reprisals against their families. Still, the girls who do not immediately denounce their exploiters have more difficulty being protected. It would thus be generalized to make the application of a provision already exists in current law, precisely meant to offer protection to all victims regardless of the complaint of criminal responsibility.
6. The IOM considers it useful to formalize a steady referral system between the Territorial Commissions for the Recognition of International Protection and the National Anti-Trafficking system. Such cooperation would contribute to the emergence of the phenomenon and the protection of victims as required by law. It ‘also necessary to provide a structured collaboration between the National System Anti trafficking and the Mission Structure of the Department of Civil Liberties and Immigration of the Ministry in charge of managing the reception of unaccompanied minors arriving by sea to ensure’ immediate identification and protection of victims of trafficking minors.
7. The IOM finally believes it is essential to provide for a continuous updating system in favour of law enforcement, border authorities, and operators engaged in landing operations and the initial reception to be able to explain the phenomenon, contributing to an early identification and protection of victims of trafficking promptly and effectively.

Sono 181.476 i migranti arrivati in Europa via mare tra l’1 gennaio e il 25 aprile 2016. A riportarlo l’Oim, Organizzazione internazionale per le migrazioni, che monitora gli sbarchi lungo il mar Mediterraneo tra le coste di Spagna, Italia, Grecia e Cipro.
In Italia, tale dato arriva a 24.894 dall’inizio del 2016 a oggi, e in particolare 7499 tra l’1 e il 25 aprile, a cui si dovrebbero aggiungere le 1130 che stanno sbarcando in queste ore nei porti italiani dove sono attivi gli hotspots, i centri di identificazione voluti dall’Unione europea e gestiti da Frontex, l’ Agenzia Ue per il controllo delle frontiere. Tra l’1 e il 30 aprile 2015, ovvero nello stesso periodo dell’anno scorso, secondo dati del ministero dell’Interno erano arrivate 26.228 persone, quindi in linea con quanto sta avvenendo quest’anno.
Sin dal 2006 l’Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni collabora con il Dipartimento Libertà Civili e Immigrazione del Ministero dell’Interno e le autorità italiane di frontiera nell’identificazione delle vittime della tratta di esseri umani in arrivo via mare. Negli ultimi anni l’OIM ha rafforzato tale impegno attraverso la stipula di appositi protocolli con le Procure Generali di Palermo e Reggio Calabria e ha instaurato una stretta collaborazione con le autorità inquirenti, il sistema nazionale anti-tratta, le comunità che vi fanno capo e i servizi sociali dei maggiori Comuni interessati dal fenomeno degli sbarchi. Nel 2014, l’OIM ha potenziato la sua attività di assistenza alle vittime con la creazione di due team anti-tratta specializzati che, oltre a fornire orientamento legale ai migranti appena sbarcati sui percorsi di protezione offerti dalla normativa vigente, svolgono un’attività di assistenza tecnica in favore degli operatori dei centri di accoglienza, delle forze dell’ordine e di tutti gli attori coinvolti nella gestione del fenomeno. Tali team, composti da esperti anti-tratta e mediatori culturali delle etnie maggiormente interessate dal fenomeno della tratta, affiancano il personale dell’OIM presente sin dal 2006 presso i principali luoghi di sbarco e nei centri governativi per l’immigrazione che svolgono in collaborazione con l’UNHCR un’informativa generale sulla normativa italiana in materia di immigrazione e asilo. L’esperienza maturata dall’OIM ha confermato la necessità di stabilire dei rapporti di stretta collaborazione con le autorità di frontiera, lo staff sanitario e le altre organizzazioni non governative presenti e impegnate presso i luoghi di sbarco per ottimizzare gli interventi di assistenza in favore dei migranti e individuare con tempismo i soggetti vulnerabili meritevoli di tutela. Nel 2014 il numero di migranti giunti sulle coste italiane ha registrato un sensibile incremento rispetto agli anni precedenti, con oltre 170.000 persone sbarcate: il quadruplo se confrontato con il dato del 2013. Tale tendenza è stata confermata nel 2015 con oltre 140.987 arrivi (al 31 ottobre 2015). Si tratta di flussi migratori misti, persone che lasciano i loro paesi in cerca di opportunità lavorative, condizioni socio economiche migliori ma anche in fuga da conflitti, persecuzioni e gravi violazioni di diritti umani. Il deteriorarsi delle condizioni di sicurezza in alcuni paesi vicini come la Libia, ha aggravato una situazione di grave instabilità che interessava un’area già provata da grandi cambiamenti politici e sociali e ha favorito lo sviluppo di gruppi criminali e paramilitari che hanno, spesso, trovato nel traffico di migranti un business particolarmente redditizio e funzionale alla loro crescita e al controllo del territorio.
La presenza dell’OIM nei principali luoghi di sbarco pone l’Organizzazione in una posizione privilegiata che le permette di monitorare e approfondire il fenomeno della tratta e i suoi continui e repentini mutamenti. Si tratta tuttavia di una visione parziale che va integrata dall’esperienza maturata dalle organizzazioni e associazioni che si occupano di identificazione e assistenza alle vittime sul territorio. Cionondimeno l’Organizzazione ritiene di potere formulare una serie di raccomandazioni e proposte per la migliore gestione del fenomeno e per una più rapida identificazione e protezione delle vittime, in particolare:
1. L’OIM ritiene necessario un cambio di approccio culturale alla gestione del fenomeno della tratta di esseri umani: si ravvisa la necessità di sperimentare interventi che includano gli “utilizzatori finali” di tale commercio, prevedendo delle campagne di sensibilizzazione (soprattutto presso le nuove generazioni) che illustrino con chiarezza cosa c’è dietro l’offerta di prestazioni sessuali.
2. Le attività di repressione del fenomeno non dovrebbero limitarsi alla tutela del decoro e dell’ordine pubblico, ma dovrebbero includere interventi integrati di assistenza alle vittime, partendo dalla difesa della salute e della loro incolumità.
3. L’OIM ricorda l’urgenza di adottare il piano nazionale sulla tratta che renderebbe operativa una protezione efficace delle vittime, che comprenda l’assistenza legale, psicologica e sanitaria. E’ particolarmente importante che aumenti anche il numero delle comunità disposte ad accogliere le migranti minorenni.
4. È necessario prevedere un rafforzamento della capacità di accoglienza delle vittime di tratta che vengono individuate come tali già al momento dello sbarco. Ciò consentirebbe di assicurare loro un’immediata protezione e di poterle allontanare dagli sfruttatori, spesso a bordo degli stessi barconi. In tal senso sarebbe utile prevedere la creazione di luoghi protetti, delle “case di fuga”, dedicate esclusivamente a questi casi.
5. È particolarmente urgente uniformare l’applicazione del percorso sociale a quello giudiziario. La legislazione italiana è senz’altro una delle più avanzate in Europa in termini di tutela delle vittime di tratta, prevedendo la possibilità di offrire un periodo di riflessione. Alcune donne, infatti, non vogliono denunciare immediatamente i loro sfruttatori per paura di ritorsioni contro i loro familiari. Eppure, le ragazze che non denunciano immediatamente i loro sfruttatori hanno più difficoltà ad essere protette. Si tratterebbe quindi di rendere generalizzata l’applicazione di una norma già esistente nella vigente legge, pensata appunto per offrire protezione a tutte le vittime a prescindere dalla denuncia dei responsabili del crimine.
6. L’OIM ritiene utile formalizzare un sistema di referral costante tra le Commissioni territoriali per il Riconoscimento della Protezione Internazionale e il Sistema Nazionale Anti Tratta. Tale collaborazione contribuirebbe all’emersione del fenomeno e alla protezione delle vittime così come previsto dalla normativa vigente. E’ necessario anche prevedere una collaborazione strutturata tra il Sistema Nazionale Anti tratta e la Struttura di Missione del Dipartimento Libertà Civili e Immigrazione del Ministero dell’Interno che si occupa di gestire l’accoglienza dei minori non accompagnati che arrivano via mare per garantire un’immediata identificazione e protezione delle vittime di tratta minorenni.
7. L’OIM infine ritiene sia fondamentale prevedere un sistema di aggiornamento costante in favore delle forze dell’ordine, delle autorità di frontiera, e degli operatori impegnati nella gestione dello sbarco e nella prima accoglienza per potere comprendere appieno il fenomeno, contribuire ad una identificazione precoce e proteggere le vittime di tratta con tempestività ed efficacia.Sont-181,476 migrants arrivés en Europe par la mer entre le 1er Janvier et le 25 Avril 2016. A retourner l’OIM, l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations, qui surveille les débarquements le long de la mer Méditerranée entre les côtes de l’Espagne, l’Italie, la Grèce et Chypre.
En Italie, ce chiffre atteint 24.894 depuis le début de 2016 pour le présent, 7499, et en particulier entre 1 et 25 Avril, à laquelle il faut ajouter le 1130 qui atterrissait à cette époque dans les ports italiens où les points chauds sont actifs, les centres d’identification ont pris l’Union européenne et géré par Frontex, l’ ‘Agence européenne de contrôle des frontières. Entre le 1er et le 30 Avril 2015, soit dans la même période l’an dernier, selon les données du ministère de l’Intérieur, ils avaient atteint 26,228 personnes, donc en ligne avec ce qui se passe cette année.
Depuis 2006, l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations travaille avec le Département des libertés civiles et de l’immigration du ministère et les autorités italiennes frontalières à identifier les victimes de la traite des êtres humains arrivant par la mer. Au cours des dernières années, l’OIM a renforcé cet engagement par la signature de protocoles appropriés avec les procureurs généraux de Palerme et Reggio de Calabre, et a établi une coopération étroite avec les autorités chargées de l’enquête, le système anti-trafic national, les communautés qui font partie de vous et services sociaux des grandes municipalités touchées par le phénomène des débarquements. En 2014, l’OIM a élargi ses activités pour aider les victimes avec la création de deux équipes spécialisées anti-traite, en plus de fournir des conseils juridiques aux immigrants vient d’atterrir sur les programmes de soins offerts par la loi, exercer l’activité l’assistance technique en faveur des opérateurs des centres d’accueil, la police et toutes les personnes impliquées dans la gestion du phénomène. Ces équipes, composées de lutte contre la traite et de médiateurs culturels des groupes ethniques les plus touchés par le phénomène des experts de la traite aux côtés de l’OIM personnel présent depuis 2006 dans les principaux sites de débarquement et les centres gouvernementaux en matière d’immigration est réalisée conjointement avec le HCR des informations générales sur la législation italienne en matière d’immigration et d’asile. L’expérience acquise par l’OIM a confirmé la nécessité d’établir des relations de coopération avec les autorités frontalières, le personnel médical et d’autres organisations non gouvernementales présentes et engagés sur les sites d’atterrissage pour optimiser les interventions d’assistance aux migrants et identifier avec synchronisation les plus vulnérables méritent une protection. En 2014, le nombre de migrants sont arrivés sur les côtes italiennes a eu une augmentation significative par rapport aux années précédentes, avec plus de 170.000 personnes a atterri: quatre fois par rapport au chiffre de 2013. Cette tendance a été confirmée en 2015 avec plus de 140.987 arrivées (31 octobre 2015). Il est des flux mixtes de migration, les personnes qui quittent leur pays à la recherche de possibilités d’emploi, de meilleures conditions socio-économiques, mais aussi fuyantes le conflit, les persécutions et les violations graves des droits de l’homme. La détérioration de la situation de sécurité dans certains pays voisins tels que la Libye, a aggravé une situation de grave instabilité qui a affecté une zone qui souffre déjà de grands changements politiques et sociaux et a encouragé le développement de groupes criminels et paramilitaires qui ont souvent trouvé dans la contrebande une entreprise particulièrement rentable et fonctionnelle à leur croissance et le contrôle du territoire.
La présence de l’OIM dans les principaux sites de débarquement met l’organisation dans une position privilégiée qui vous permet de surveiller et d’enquêter sur le phénomène de la traite et de ses changements continus et soudains. Cependant, ceci est une vue partielle qui est construit à partir de l’expérience acquise par les organisations et associations concernées par l’identification et l’assistance aux victimes dans la région. Néanmoins, l’organisation estime qu’il peut faire un certain nombre de recommandations et de propositions pour une meilleure gestion du phénomène et pour une identification plus rapide et la protection des victimes, en particulier:
1. L’ OIM n’estime qu’un changement d’approche culturelle à la gestion du phénomène de la traite des êtres humains: il est apparu nécessaire de faire l’expérience des mesures, y compris les «utilisateurs finaux» de ce commerce, avec des campagnes de sensibilisation (en particulier chez les plus jeunes générations) qui illustrent clairement ce qui est derrière la publicité des services sexuels.
2. La répression du phénomène ne doit pas être limitée à la protection de l’ordre public et le décorum, mais devrait inclure des mesures intégrées pour aider les

victimes, à commencer par la défense de la santé et leur sécurité.
3. L’OIM souligne le besoin urgent d’adopter le Plan national sur le trafic qui rendrait une protection efficace opérationnelle des victimes, y compris l’assistance juridique, psychologique et la santé. Et «particulièrement important d’augmenter le nombre de communautés prêtes à accepter les migrants mineurs.
4. Il devrait y avoir un renforcement de la capacité d’absorption des victimes de la traite qui sont identifiés comme tels déjà au moment de l’atterrissage. Cela permettrait d’assurer leur protection immédiate et ils peuvent être loin des exploiteurs, souvent dans ces véhicules barges. Dans ce sens, il serait utile de prévoir la création d’aires protégées, de «maisons sûres», dédiée exclusivement à ces cas.
5. Il est particulièrement urgent d’uniformiser l’application de la voie de l’action à la magistrature. La législation italienne est sans aucun doute l’un des plus avancés d’Europe en matière de protection des victimes de la traite, en permettant d’offrir une période de réflexion. En fait, certaines femmes ne veulent pas signaler immédiatement les trafiquants par crainte de représailles contre leurs familles. Pourtant, les filles qui ne dénoncent pas immédiatement leurs exploiteurs ont plus de difficulté à protéger. Il serait donc être généralisé pour rendre l’application d’une disposition existe déjà dans la loi actuelle, signifiait précisément pour offrir une protection à toutes les victimes indépendamment de la plainte de la responsabilité pénale.
6. L’OIM estime utile de formaliser un système de référence stable entre les commissions territoriales pour la reconnaissance de la protection internationale et le système de la traite nationale anti. Cette coopération contribuera à l’émergence du phénomène et la protection des victimes conformément à la loi. Il est également nécessaire de prévoir une collaboration structurée entre le trafic Système national Anti et la structure de la mission du Département des libertés civiles et de l’immigration du ministère en charge de la gestion de l’accueil des mineurs non accompagnés arrivant par la mer pour assurer ‘ identification immédiate et la protection des victimes de la traite des mineurs.
7. L’OIM estime enfin qu’il est essentiel de prévoir un système de mise à jour continue en faveur de l’application de la loi, les autorités frontalières, et les opérateurs engagés dans des opérations de débarquement et la réception initiale pour être en mesure d’expliquer le phénomène, ce qui contribue à un identification précoce et la protection des victimes de la traite rapidement et efficacement.

Global warming: UN meeting for the ratification of Paris Agreement

  • 24 April 2016

The 175 world leaders on April 22, gathered at the headquarters of Nations to ratify the provisions. For the first time in UN history over 175 States have signed an international agreement the first day it is open for signature. The High Representatives of Governments have also spoken with positive spirit underlining the commitment to act quickly to make the Paris agreement a reality, and affirming that the political will has never been so strong as now.
The signing of the agreement, moreover, is only a first step. Because the text to enter into force and produce tangible results, at least 55 countries (which must cover at least 55 percent of global emissions), should ratify, approve or accept the Agreement.
The agreement will enter into force 30 days after at least 55 countries have submitted the ratification to Ban Ki-moon.
The agreement is particularly urgent if we consider the data related to global warming: last month there was the warmest March ever, after 11 consecutive months of record temperatures. One of the worst drought-hit eastern and southern Africa, 93% of the Great Barrier Reef was hit by coral bleaching and the Greenland ice sheet is facing an early season of ice melting, with record temperatures that reached almost 20 ° C above the average.
Are just a few of the most recent effects of climate change and it is the sad contemporary scene in which you have just held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York – on the occasion of the Earth Day 2016 – the ceremony of the signing of Paris, which revolves around the collective commitment to keep global warming to 1.5 ° C compared to pre-industrial.
“It’s urgent to do more – explains the environmental organization – The surface of our planet has just experienced the hottest months on record. E ‘must start immediately very ambitious actions if we are to have any chance of staying below the threshold of extreme risk to the natural systems of the Earth and for the most vulnerable human communities on the planet “.
Because the promise of keeping global warming under control, does not remain only on paper, 195 countries will have to get to New York with commitments to new and ambitious actions to be taken by 2020 on renewable energies, energy efficiency, conservation of forests to make funding available for climate and for the quick exit from the use of fossil fuels, which have led to this dramatic situation.
The agreement provides in detail that the rise in temperature is contained “well below 2 degrees Celsius”, trying to stop and + 1.5 °. To hit the target, emissions must start to decline from 2020.
Moreover, unlike previous agreements on the subject, this involves the whole world: they have joined the biggest polluters over Europe, namely China, India and the United States, which pledged to cut emissions.
The text provides a review process of the objectives that must be held every five years. However, already in 2018 it will ask the states to increase emissions cuts, so get ready in 2020. The first five-year monitoring will be in 2023 and then to follow.
The old industrialized countries will deliver one hundred billion per year (from 2020) to spread around the world green technologies and decarbonise the economy. A new financial goal will be fixed at the latest in 2025. They will also contribute funds and private investors.
The agreement also gives way to a reimbursement mechanism to compensate for the financial losses caused by climate change in the most vulnerable countries geographically, often the poorest are.
Criticism major energy moves from environmentalists and scientists concern, first of all, not timely departure. According to many it is risky to establish in 2018-2023 the first revision of the national targets on the amount of emissions: if the world continues to pollute as usual for another three years, at which point it will be impossible to achieve the objectives of the Paris agreement.
It also was not expressly provided no date for the elimination of emissions. Not a timetable leading to progressive has been set, but total replacement of fossil energy sources. The request of environmentalists was to arrive at a reduction of 70 percent from current levels around 2050, and achieve zero emissions in the next decade.
It is not scheduled a date for the decarbonisation of the economy, probably because of lobbying from oil and gas producers.
Checks will be self-certified, as required by the emerging countries, led by China. Most industrialized countries did; in fact, they were the international bodies to monitor compliance of emission allowances, unlike understanding from the controls provided for in the Paris.
There are not found agreement on charges of aircraft emissions and ships in international routes. It is for this, but also to the power of the companies, which once again the exhaust gases of aircraft and ships defy control.
Fifteen countries are already virtuous: it comes mostly from rising level of the insular and most threatened oceans States that have already ratified the agreement. These are Barbados, Belize, Fiji, Grenada, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Nauru, Palau, Palestine, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Somalia and Tuvalu.
Several states have announced plans to join the agreement in 2016, including: Australia, Argentina, Cameroon, Canada, China, France, Mali, Mexico, the Philippines and the United States. Other countries, including Brazil, the European Union and the Russian Federation have pledged to work quickly to
Complete the necessary steps for the accession to the Agreement.
The meeting held at the palace of glass also has the task of setting up the work for the next meeting in Bonn, the delegations’ meeting where they will resume the meeting thread of Paris concluding what was left pending. And ‘therefore essential that world leaders not only from sending strong signals to their negotiators, but instruct them on the key elements necessary to give the Paris Agreement concreteness.
The interests underlying the agreement advertising and pressures to prompt ratification, however, are not only the nobles. In fact, more than environmental groups, including a large group of international investors interested in the development of the green economy called for an early entry into force and the speedy implementation of the Agreement, with a letter signed by several associations representing 400 global investors managing assets of about 24 trillion dollars. Investors point out, very pragmatically, that the countries which will join soon the Paris agreement will have greater regulatory certainty, and this will help to attract more investments for decarbonisation and for a more sustainable future concretely. The national commitments offered by most of the participating countries at COP 21, are insufficient to achieve the targets of the Agreement.
To be ambitious-and point to the 100% of renewables energies are huge companies like Google, Apple, Microsoft, Nike, Mars and many others- and investment funds managing over 24 trillion dollars.
The commitments are quite stringent, and, paradoxically, the European Union, which has always boasted of being the leader of transformation, is likely to be late with the ratification process, having to wait for it to express the 29 national parliaments.
On the Old Continent, in fact, the speech becomes more complicated and gloomy. Far from being a true leader and an effective enthralling, the EU is mired in the ‘distribution’ of national CO2 reduction targets. Usually frontrunners, Europe are now stuck waiting for the legislative package for 2030 launched before the summer.
Maroš Šefčovič, Vice Jean-Claude Juncker, has pledged to achieve the results for September: a countdown that could split the EU, with stragglers cut off from the first COP (Meeting of the Parties) of the Agreement, which will be launched details decisive on transparency mechanisms of action (mitigation, adaptation, coverage of the damage and losses) and support (technological, financial and construction of the organized skills) and the annual monitoring of compliance with standards.
The plan in Brussels is to present together and the proposal for ratification of Paris both national targets for 2030 for CO2 reduction for sectors not covered by the European emissions trading (ETS), such as agriculture, transport and construction. However, not even the brilliant Commissioner Miguel Arias Canete Climate is aware that the process to ensure the support of 28 different governments and 29 parliaments, including Eurocamera, “will take time,” he told the New York ceremony.
Even within the EU palaces voice is not unanimous. “After Paris the whole world is moving except for the EU,” explains Bas Eickhout, Vice President of the Green Group at the European Parliament. The US and China have already announced their intention to ratify the agreement this year, probably around September, coinciding with the UN General Assembly. “These two countries together account for about 40% of emissions, that with India becoming 45%” Eickhout said, that “if you were to also add Japan, under pressure from the US, the entry into force in 2016 or 2017 becomes likely, without the EU. ” Since coming into force, the agreement-saving climate needs ratification by 55 countries, covering at least 55% of global emissions, a scenario is unlikely that this can happen without the block of 28 countries. That, in addition to losing credibility as leaders, it could remain cut off from the first key decisions on rules and procedures. An entirely different view, however, is understandable in Giovanni La Via, President of the Committee on Environment European Parliament, speak. “We are 28 countries, it is normal that the ratification process is more complex and this is not a race, what matters is the objective, which is achieved together,” he said.
Note also that the battle at the diplomatic level will not end with Paris, because the agreement has remained outside reducing emissions in the sectors of air and sea transport. A debate that must be strictly dealt with globally but hindered by the International Maritime and the Civil Aviation Organization (IMO and ICAO), still far from Launch a comprehensive extent size-CO2. But even on this front it seems that the EU keeps up. Also according Eickhout Europe has focused on other dossiers, and is not doing great pressure.
In this context of paralysis Italy could play an important role in the G7, which has the presidency next year. But the lack of interest of the chairman of the board for environmental issues has emerged quite clearly in the referendum on the augers.
As for the actions against Italy, it must start from data released by the Climate Report of the Sustainable Development Foundation: global greenhouse gas emissions in 2014 and 2015 have been stable despite the increase in GDP of around 3% per year. But in Italy in 2015, after years of decline (-20% in 2014 compared to 1990), greenhouse gas emissions have actually increased by 2.5%. The increase, which interrupts a positive series of reductions, is due to the growth of GDP, the drop in oil and gas prices, the increase in energy consumption, a slowdown in energy efficiency policies and the interruption of growth of renewable energy sources.
Between 2005 and 2012 Italy, the development of renewable sources, has achieved some impressive results with the help of incentives bringing clean energy from 8 to 16% of national consumption, doing better than the European average, ranking among world leaders. But the last three years, the situation has reversed: according to the report, renewable increased from 16.7% in 2013 to 17.3% in 2015, with a modest growth of 0.2% per year and is decreased the share of electricity from renewable sources from 43% to 38% between 2014 and 2015.
In doing so, despite having already hit the EU target of 17% in 2020, Italy is very far from the objective of the European 27% for 2030 and also from the implementation of the Agreement of Paris.
“By placing the objective of the change in temperature in an intermediate position – between 1.5 ° C and 2 ° C – with the agreement of Paris, Italy in 2030 should reduce greenhouse gas emissions by around 50% compared 1990: this would require a strong commitment to savings and energy efficiency with a reduction of the expected consumption by about 40% and doubling the share of renewable sources, from 17.3% to about 35% of final energy consumption to 2030, and the only electric power, renewables should meet at least 2/3 of the electricity demand, “says the Foundation.
To implement the Paris Agreement, in essence, our country will have to define a new National Energy Strategy with ambitious targets to 2030. A company not easy, gave the Italian disease to fossil fuels.

Metrofood-Ri: a European network for food safety

  • 9 April 2016

On March 30th, was held at ENEA’s first national meeting for the construction and start-up of the Italian node METROFOOD-RI which aims to bring together all actors and stakeholders.
The project of the new infrastructure of pan-European research led by ENEA (METROFOOD-RI) was rated “emerging” for its scientific excellence in the domain “Health & Food”. The project, coordinated by Italy, is currently supported by Portugal, Romania, Austria, Spain, Greece, France, Czech Republic, Turkey, Moldova, Macedonia, Republic of Slovenia and the participation of 31 partners from 15 different European countries .
In addition to allowing the development of research and the advancement of knowledge in the different fields related to the Agribusiness, METROFOOD-RI system will determine the improvement of production and the expansion of markets, promoting the product and process innovation and promoting competitiveness and sustainability. Even the institutions involved to ensure food security and to combat counterfeiting and local and regional bodies working to improve the protection and use of natural resources will greatly benefit from this RI, in terms of improved efficiency and effectiveness of the controls and greater system reliability of decision making underpinning the territorial and social policies. In addition to the effects on health in terms of improved safety and health of the productions, METROFOOD-RI will allow a real approach of science to the needs of citizens, the strengthening of consumer confidence and the establishment of the virtuous cycle of demand and supply that contributes to promote authenticity and quality of the productions.
A METROFOOD-RI national level represents a great opportunity to integrate scientific resources and skills, aligning research and innovation to the values, the needs and expectations of the Company and implement the convergence and cohesion policies. This first national meeting aims to bring together all actors and stakeholders, so as to draw a shared location for the construction and start-up of the Italian node METROFOOD-RI.
It aims to support scientific research, product and process innovation and make more effective the controls in the food sector. FAO also among the more than 30 international partners. The beneficiaries will be consumers, businesses and all institutions involved to ensure food security and to combat counterfeiting.
METROFOOD-RI will rely on a “physical infrastructure” consists of a widespread network of laboratories, but also by fields, experimental farms and technological equipment for the production and processing of food products in 15 European countries. A web platform will allow you to share and make available information and data.
The initiative involves a sub-fund, the agri-food, which in Italy has 58 thousand enterprises with a turnover of 133 billion Euros, while the so-called Italian sounding – the false Made in Italy – only in this sector has exceeded 60 billion euro turnover, almost double the value of exports of the original products.
“Metrology for the food processing is an emerging field – explains Joanna Zappa ENEA, coordinator of the project – which opens up new possibilities in terms of quality, safety and traceability of food. In addition to strengthening international cooperation and to develop harmonized methodologies and procedures at European level to perform chemical and biological measures increasingly reliable, with METROFOOD intend to bring science closer to citizens, strengthening consumer confidence in the quality and authenticity of the food production ” .
The new search infrastructure has been presented today in Rome at the headquarters of ENEA during the conference “METROFOOD-RI: a new European infrastructure for the development of the agri-food system and Consumer Protection”, which was attended, in addition to Agency researchers, representatives of the Ministers of Economic Development, Health, Education, University and Research, Agriculture and Foreign Affairs, Agency for National Cohesion, ESFRI (European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures), APRE (Agency for the Promotion of European Research ), National Agrifood Cluster, ISS (National Institute of Health), INRIM (National Institute of Metrological Research), CNR, CREA (Council for Research in Agriculture) and INVITALIA.
” In addition to strengthening international cooperation and develop harmonized methods and procedures at European level to perform chemical and biological measures increasingly reliable, with Metrofood intend to bring science closer to citizens, strengthening consumer confidence in the quality and authenticity of the products food ”.