Clashes between the population in Algeria: awakens hatred between Arabs and Berbers

  • 30 July 2015

In recent days, in southern Algeria, there have been clashes between the Berber and Arab communities, which have resulted in the wounding of dozens of Algerians and led to death twenty-two people-but other sources say the death toll is at least twenty-five. This is the most serious budget recorded in the region around Ghardaia, a city in the valley of Mzab, about 600 kilometres south of Algiers, where from 2013 the two communities are competing for land, labour and housing.

Witnesses said the streets were undisputed territory of dozens of insurgents and some corpses were found in private homes, empty because the owners had fled under threat of firearms.

The spiral of violence has made it necessary to send in reinforcements. The response of the Algerian authorities has been entrusted to the interior minister who has called a meeting of extraordinary security to restore order in the region. Among those present at the meeting were also the Prime Minister ‘Abed Malek Sellal, some defence officials and the chief of staff Salah Ahmed Gaid.

The crisis unit set up by the Interior Ministry is trying to take the necessary and urgent to end the wave of violence that has affected some of the towns of the district.

Algerian President announced an emergency plan to end the ethnic clashes. In an official statement, the Presidency said that the project is based on three points that relate to security, justice and development in the region. To implement the provisions of the presidency will be the commander of the military region, General Sherif ‘Abd ar-Rezak that Bouteflika has asked to “supervise the actions of the security services and local authorities to restore order.” The President also ordered the prosecutor of the Ghardaia to arrest all criminals “with diligence and severity.”

Meanwhile, hundreds of mozabite people (Berber ethnic group that inhabits the region of M’zab) protested outside the headquarters of the press in Algiers to denounce the escalation of violence in recent days in the city of Ghardaia. Protesters in particular, accused the authorities of doing nothing to stop the violence.

The bloody events, broke out in the poor desert region of Ghardaia, are only the latest violent episode in an area where there constant in recent years the tension between Arabs and Berbers. Tension, sporadically, gave birth to ethnic violence. The mozabite people are a community that still speak the language Tamazight (Berber), the original language of the Maghreb countries. Are Muslim but they belong to a rite, said Ibadi, who is now a small minority in the Muslim world. The Ibadi are located, as well as in the valley of Mzab, in a few other places. The Sultanate of Oman (with 900,000 inhabitants) is currently the only country where the majority is the confession Ibadism. Then there are other pockets scattered as Zanzibar, the island of Djerba in Tunisia and the Nafusa Mountains and Zuara in Libya.

In addition to mozabite people in the valley of Mzab lives a tribe of Bedouin Arabs, Scianba. A peaceful coexistence that has lasted for centuries due to economic complementarities between the activities of the two communities: Agriculture, crafts and trade for mozabite people, livestock and transport caravan for Scianba.

Complementarity has failed with modernity. Today, on the one hand the hardworking and decent community Mozabite knows neither crises nor unemployment, Scianba suffer from all the ills that beset the South Algerian: rampant unemployment, poverty, drugs, violence, the spread of illegal trafficking and organized crime. In addition to the co-existence between the two communities, the provincial capital, Ghardia, has become a fairly large city where many new residents arrived from other regions of the country.

The violent clashes between the two communities are reported from the first years of independence of the country (60 ‘). Often skirmishes between young people that sometimes lead to fights between a few dozen, rarely hundreds, of people from one side. At the end of which the local and national authorities, with the help of chiefs and wise of the two sides have always been able to restore calm.

From 2013 until today, the Algerian government and the local authorities do not seem able or willing to restore calm. The clashes have become more frequent, involving more people; do more damage both economic and human. And for the first time in the history of these clashes, firearms and organized gangs make their appearance. Appeals circulating on social media bring people even from outside the Valley Mzab to take part in a fight that loses the nickname “mozabite people against Scianba” to take what (the fashion of sectarian clashes that have bloodied the Middle East) “Sunnis against Ibadi “.

According to the official Algerian news agency APS, the scene of clashes have been especially the towns of Berriane and Guerrara, M’Zab Valley in the north of the Sahara, where the violence were carried out by groups of young people with knives, iron bars and firearms. Many also incidents of urban violence, including vandalism and arson of houses, shops, warehouses, cars, street furniture and even palm trees.

At the root of hatred, however, there are economic and social causes (fight for a job, for land and housing, the fight to win the limited resources available in the poor south of the country), rather than cultural and religious.

For mozabite people (the population of Berber origin, as evidenced by the language they speak, the tumzabt) central policies have resulted in a state of growing frustration, in which he also played the perception of being marginalized because of belonging to the current Ibadi.

Done consistently denied from Algiers, but that, in the minds of mozabite people, is at least a contributory cause of what is happening and that should result in cyclical outbreaks of violence, with mutual and fierce manhunt. Adding to the anger of mozabite people there are also demographic policies pursued by the central authorities, despite the opposition of the minority, continue to issue building permits for land around their neighbourhoods, allocating new buildings – often included in the plans of social housing – to Arab families.

Ghardaia, called the pearl of the desert, is an ancient city classified a World Heritage Site. It is the capital of the only region in Algeria, where housing complexes built before the colonial period is normally inhabited the same time and in excellent condition. The city-fortresses Valley Mzab (named region) owe their construction and preservation of the religious minority mozabite people.

In an article in al-Watan, the professor Rosto el-Jazairyya, Berber Mozabite, he denounced the marginalization of their community because of the sectarian politics of the Algerian authorities. Al-Jazairiyya spoke of “a plan to asphyxiate an entire population” and “well-structured attempt to isolate it politically and morally.” Algiers, according to the professor, “is trying to dictate with terror threats and the terms of the submission (community Mozabite).”

This suggests that the recent events are not only a result of ethnic clashes (between Arab tribes once warrior of chaâmbi and minority Mozabite) or religious (Sunni against Ibadi Islamic current which is different from both the Shia and Sunna therefore often disliked by the two majority groups), but there is also the rebellion of a minority that feels close to a pincer policy that pursues with systematic determination, the goal of Arabize Algeria, even with the use of coercion.

President Bouteflika has awareness of the gap between Berbers and Arabs, which is why the program announced three points also included the issue of sustainable economic and social area. However, the reactions to this announcement are not unequivocally positive; a key point appears to be the investment allocated. One objection that we read in the newspaper La Tribune regards the provisions of the Government, which, as every time there is an exacerbation of the conflict in the area, only announces measures to stem the crisis temporarily, without treating the underlying causes of the voltages. The failure – says the newspaper – reflects a wider crisis that lives in Algeria, where “the specificity of a region and its ancestral values” tend to be ignored by the authorities. The Berbers make up 30% of the Algerian population and have long been marginalized by the Arab majority.

In conjunction with the bloody clashes in the region of Ghardaia, the Algerian defence ministry announced proudly that -from the beginning of the year – 102 jihadists were killed, captured or repented. In the note, reported national news agency APS, is also referred to “large quantities of weapons and ammunition – including automatic weapons, rocket-propelled grenades and nearly 1,300 explosive devices – have been seized by security forces between January and June.”

The radical political Islam is still a problem in the country. Jihadist groups have plunged Algeria in the 90s and, although the violence has decreased considerably fundamentalist, terrorist cells are still active in the central and eastern part of the Arab state which are launching occasional attacks on security forces.

The mozabite people (who take their name from the valley of M’zab, 600 km south of Algiers), in Ghardaia, until Independence were the majority, both in numbers and economic. Their presence is strong in Algiers, Oran and Constantine such. Since the end of the French occupation the mozabite people feel at the centre of a policy of encirclement. A process that concerns the mozabite people as well as the Kabyles, also repositories of a culture different from the dominant one and that, often, they have to defend themselves to attack, earning the reputation of the Kabylia region turbulent and still untamed.

The reaction of Algeria is to increase the military presence in the streets. The country was not as militarized even during the black decade of war of the 90s’. “There is a military post at every intersection, as have the freedom to hordes of robbers who come from all parts of the south of the country” – wonder activists mozabite people.

 

The border between Libya and Tunisia: the announcement of the construction of a barrier in the fight against terrorism

  • 20 July 2015

The recent terrorist attack, that bloodied the beaches of Tunisia, dealt a huge blow on the emerging field of tourism, has suddenly awakened the sense of unease in the Tunisian people and caused the immediate reaction of the Prime Minister Habib Essid.

During a speech in Parliament, in fact, the prime minister said that “the goal of the terrorists is to strike with force the national economy and it is for this reason that the state has decided to respond by proclaiming a state of national emergency”. Parliament has therefore to approve such a state, proclaimed by President Beji Caid Essebsi, in order to prevent new terrorist attacks.

Such a situation of exception is the basis of the choices made by the Premier Essid to build a barrier on the border between Tunisia and Libya. According to the head of government, the achievement of this work will help to reduce the risk of infiltration of commando groups and Islamists from across the border.

The Prime Minister justified the conviction of being in real danger, saying: “we would not have declared a state of emergency if we had not been in this situation” with “terrorist plots aimed at the destabilization of the entire country.”

The project involves the construction of a protective barrier, a distance of 220 km from the coast; it will have inspection stations at regular intervals and will consist of a set of obstacles, ditches and trenches with the aim to protect the borders national smuggling of goods and weapons and infiltration of terrorists. The Premier and the Minister of Defence Tunisians have stated that the barrier will be ready by the end of 2015 and will see the involvement and participation in the work of nine companies.

The minister of defence, Belhassen Oueslati, explained in this regard that “the electronic control system of borders will be implemented with the help and material assistance of many friendly countries”, especially as regards the development of software electronic security.

The work will have a double value: it will serve, in fact, both as wall barrier and as a real line of fortifications against jihadist infiltration from the neighbouring country, and against the smuggling of weapons that could fuel the fight to terrorist groups already on Tunisian soil.

The location chosen is aimed at controlling the most at risk of the border with Libya, one from which, based on empirical data, the passage-both inbound and outbound from Tunisia- is easier.

The Government of Tunisia also aims to isolate the country from neighbouring Libyan area where there is a strong presence of jihadists linked to al Qaeda and the Islamic State and where there is an ongoing power struggle between the dozens of extremist groups operating in the area, Tripoli.

It must also consider that the area south of Tunisia, however, is itself an area largely controlled by members of terrorist movements. It is a zone within a state that, by exercising the policy of iron fist on counter-terrorism, the government has managed to reclaim especially areas close to large urban agglomerations. And it is in the south of Tunisia who become radicalized and are trained fighters who have made the country the one from which the highest number of foreign fighters to go to fight in Syria, Iraq and even Libya.

The closure of the borders considered dangerous by the government Essid is the point from which start to increase the effectiveness of restrictive measures put in place by the executive and the president Beji Caid Essebsi: the declaration of a state of emergency, which expands the powers in hand to law enforcement agencies in the fight against terrorism and organized crime, and a law on counter that of 2003, which was already considered tough against those suspected of belonging to fundamentalist movements.

It is also easy to predict that the state of emergency will have consequences on the political front. The construction of the fence shows, in fact, that by the Tunisian government is the clear will to act against Islamic terrorists. Declarations and announcements of recent days could be the first concrete signs of a different approach against jihadism, long desired by the people. In fact, a state of emergency allows the armed forces to handle even issues of public policy and, therefore, to compress personal freedom on the altar of state security; and also the barrier means that the statements and measures, followed, finally, concrete action.

 

 

The Third International Conference on Financing for Development Addis Ababa, 13-16 July 2015

  • 19 July 2015

The Third International Conference on Financing for Development gathered high-level political representatives, including Heads of State and Government, and Ministers of Finance, Foreign Affairs and Development Cooperation, as well as all relevant institutional stakeholders, non-governmental organizations and business sector entities. The Conference will result in an intergovernmental negotiated and agreed outcome, which should constitute an important contribution to and support the implementation of the post-2015 development agenda.

The conference was organized by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations and took place in the capital of Ethiopia in the period between 13 and 16 July.

In order to understand the importance of the international conference on financing for development is necessary to analyze some data:

  • In the world’s one billion people, about one in seven, live in extreme poverty.
  • During the fifteen years preceding 2010, the average GDP per capita for those living in rich countries stood between thirty and thirty-five thousand dollars a year, while those who lived in India, South Asia and Africa Sub -Samarian, it stopped at $ 2000 per capita, per year. China has about five thousand dollars.
  • Since 2008, it has been estimated that for every dollar that developing countries earn (through foreign direct investment, remittances, aid etc.), lose about $ 2 (mainly as a result of illicit financial flows and debt repayments).
  • A recent study by UNCTAD estimates that developing countries lose about $ 100 billion in tax revenue each year, as a result of tax evasion made by the large companies, which make transit investments through tax havens. These figures, however, are representative of only a part of the problem, since it does not take into account the complex set of tax avoidance schemes in which large corporations rely, nor include the losses that developing countries lose by providing generous tax incentives multinational companies to attract investments (such losses are estimated to reach 138 billion dollars a year).
  • By the end of 2015, it is estimated that the share of aid to the private sector will exceed $ 100 billion, or about two-thirds of official development assistance.
  • The average number of resources allocated to official development assistance (ODA) from member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently 0.29% of GDP, with only five countries (Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway , Sweden and the UK) reaching 0.7%.
  • If each donor OECD destinies in ODA (official development aid) of 0.7% of GDP, it would be able to raise $ 250 billion more per year, bringing the total to just under $ 400 billion in the ‘year.
  • Oxfam – international network of seventeen organizations of different countries that pursue the global fight against poverty and injustice, based on democracy and participation as internal governance instruments and externally estimated that the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa are already spending about $ 5 billion of their resources for adaptation to climate change: for many of these countries it is a figure significantly higher than what has been received through international financial resources intended for climate protection.

In compliance with the listed, the community of states gathered in the Third International Conference on Financing for Development includes as there is a need to set up an intergovernmental committee under the auspices of the United Nations with the mandate and resources for cooperation in tax matters, bringing the focus of future negotiations the issue of abuses to the detriment of developing countries.

Also rich countries should allocate 0.7% of GDP in official development assistance, directing 50% of the funds to the poorest countries of the world (LDCs Least Developed Countries) in the next five years. These funds will also provide additional resources to combat climate change. Also additional resources for development could be attracted by the revenue from the European tax on financial transactions (FTT), which is currently being finalized between eleven EU countries. Sentiment shared, in fact, concerns the need for official development assistance. The renewed commitment to allocate at least 0.7% of GDP in development aid was crucial to show solidarity and sense of justice to the communities and the poorest countries of the world. Unfortunately, because of the tight schedule that did not allow a systematic treatment of the agenda items, they were not formalized those commitments are necessary to allow an ambitious and comprehensive program of development. With so scarce public resources, it would be of vital importance to ensure that every dollar is actually spent for the purpose for which it was allocated.

Another need is to establish control mechanisms to ensure that projects of private funding are actually aimed at reducing poverty and promoting sustainable development; and that unlike private finance is not used as a substitute for official development assistance.

As for the scope of taxation, governments of developing countries had advanced pressing demands for the establishment of an intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, which could have representative legitimacy, a real decision-making power and the right skills, to reform the current system of global taxation. The negotiations were held in precarious balance, with countries developing that made common front to secure a deal on the subject. Nevertheless, the changes were limited to a slight strengthening of the existing Committee of Experts of the United Nations. There was no significant change in the distribution of resources and positioned in a figure which, more than any other, signals the continuing domination of the OECD on the agenda of global taxation. The question cannot be abandoned: governments must courageously bring the reform of international taxation to another level.

In addition, the document on the conclusions put private funding in a central location in the plan of development funds, in particular encouraging the use of partnerships between public, private and mixed financing instruments. However, there are few guarantees that the funds are actually used for private foster sustainable development; ensure the protection of human rights and greater social and environmental responsibility, ensuring, as a priority, the protection of the public.

Although many developing countries have stressed the devastating impact that climate change is having on their populations today, the summit addressed only superficially the issue of costs that will be forced to support the countries that are least responsible for the problem. E ‘unacceptable that an increasing proportion of aid is used for environmental protection (13% in 2013), while the overall budget is barely increased. The appropriations will be central to the climate policies ahead of the summit in Paris. To cope with climate change must not divert monies for development aid, but that new source of public finance is made available in government budgets. The European Union should begin the process, ensuring that the financial transaction tax, which is going to be introduced in eleven countries, and the proceeds of the European carbon market, are used for the Green Climate Fund.

To overcome poverty is a priority counter financial practices adopted by large companies globally, which divert resources essential to the development of poor countries. And ‘the alarm raised by Oxfam at the Third International Conference on Financing for Development in progress from yesterday until July 16 in Addis Ababa, in the presence of Heads of State and Government. The Addis Ababa conference is, in fact, a fundamental step to define the tools and financial resources needed to eradicate poverty under the new framework of the objectives of sustainable development, which will be adopted at the end of September in New York by the United Nations and that estimate requires a financial investment of approximately 1,500 additional billion dollars a year.

In the long months of negotiations towards the summit in Addis Ababa, the rich countries have systematically blocked attempts to balance the already unjust international financial rules that benefit countries and companies in the Western world, while fleeing every year billions of dollars to poor countries. It is estimated that, since 2008, for every dollar that a developing country has managed to capture in his lead – through, for example, foreign investment and development aid – it has lost two more due to circumvention and dell ‘ tax evasion accomplished to his injury.

“There is a serious risk that the conference of Addis Ababa face a lot more to the balance sheets of large multinationals, which for the poorest people in the world. – Says Winnie Byanyima, director general of Oxfam International – And ‘necessary that governments have the ability and leadership necessary to rebalance the rules on taxation, development aid and private finance so that they are really for the benefit of all, and not just a fortunate few. Only then can we hope to be able to mobilize the resources needed to overcome poverty and achieve the objectives of sustainable development. ”

Negotiations for the summit have stalled right on the thorniest issue but central: the reform of the tax system overall. Rich countries are strongly opposing the establishment of an Intergovernmental Committee for the tax cooperation that might put an end to tax abuses by multinational corporations. According to UNCTAD (the UN Conference on Trade and Development) countries in the developing world lose an average of $ 100 billion every year through one type of tax avoidance, i.e. one that involves so-called “tax havens”.

Oxfam also, we are risking to give an increased role to private finance, and the Constitution is subject to the controls necessary to ensure that aid reaches those who need it most, especially when it comes to essential public as health services or education. In some cases the consequences are paradoxical: a hospital in Lesotho managed as a public-private partnership, for example, has only eroded the 51% of the health budget of the country, leaving in fact many rural areas with poor and inadequate health coverage.

A development approach in which the protection of the interests of private finance has too much weight, and lack of international tax standards can limit tax avoidance, which subtracts primary resources for the fight against poverty in the developing world. These are, according to Oxfam, the two main outstanding issues at the Third International Conference on Financing for Development which ended in Addis Ababa. Nevertheless, during the summit it showed the clear desire of many countries to achieve real reform of the tax system overall, which looks to effective cooperation on: a call for justice and equity that cannot long remain unheard.

“Even today, one in seven people in the world live in extreme poverty: the Addis summit could be an opportunity to put an end once and for all to this scandal.- says the general director of Oxfam International, Winnie Byanyima – At the summit, but many crucial goals have disappeared from the agenda of the work: the financing of development projects was simply handed over to the private sector, without adequate guarantees that these funds are aimed at reducing poverty and promoting development sustainable. Since most countries in the developing world – continues Byanyima – showed a clear willingness to work together for the establishment of an intergovernmental committee for cooperation on tax matters, able to give them the same voice of the rich countries, but despite This has left the summit with the feeling of having reached a weak compromise that will have no real impact on the fight against tax avoidance that continues to divert resources essential to the poorest people of the world. ”

The Addis summit is only the first of three major international meetings to be held in 2015. “The Summit on Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations in September and the next summit on climate change, to be held in December in Paris (COP 21), will be two important opportunities for governments to engage in development aid and a more equitable distribution of resources to the poorest people of the world. – Concludes Byanyima – Everyone needs to continue this battle against an unfair system that favours the interests few. Governments must listen: in 2015 we can still get to that change that we all need for a future fair and just “.

The scope of the Conference is set out in General Assembly resolutions 68/204 and 68/279, and will focus on:

  1. assessing the progress made in the implementation of the Monterrey Consensus and the Doha Declaration and identifying obstacles and constraints encountered in the achievement of the goals and objectives agreed therein, as well as actions and initiatives to overcome these constraints;
  2. addressing new and emerging issues, including in the context of the recent multilateral efforts to promote international development cooperation;
  • the current evolving development cooperation landscape;
  • the interrelationship of all sources of development finance;
  • the synergies between financing objectives across the three dimensions of sustainable development; and
  • the need to support the United Nations development agenda beyond 2015;
  1. Reinvigorating and strengthening the financing for development follow-up process.

The intergovernmental preparatory process of the Conference was launched on 17 October 2014. It includes a series of substantive informal sessions and informal interactive hearings with civil society and the business sector through March 2015, as well as drafting sessions on the outcome document in January, April and June 2015.

The International Conference on Financing for Development (Monterrey, Mexico, 18-22 March 2002) signalled a turning point in the approach to development cooperation by the international community. It was the first United Nations-sponsored summit-level meeting to address key financial and related issues pertaining to global development. With more than 50 Heads of State and Government and over 200 ministers of foreign affairs, trade, development and finance – the largest ever participation of finance officials at a United Nations-sponsored event – the Conference succeeded in placing financing for development firmly on the global agenda.

The Monterrey Consensus reflects a landmark global agreement between developed and developing countries, in which both recognized their responsibilities in key areas such as trade, aid, debt relief and institution building.

The 2008 Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus (Doha, Qatar, 29 November – 2 December 2008) adopted the Doha Declaration which recognized that mobilizing financial resources for development and the effective use of all those resources were central to the global partnership for sustainable development. Given the global economic situation at the time, the Doha Declaration called for a United Nations Conference at the highest level to examine the impact of the world financial and economic crisis on development.

The United Nations Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on Development were held in New York from 24 to 30 June 2009. It provided a uniquely inclusive forum to identify emergency and long-term responses to mitigate the impact of the crisis and initiate a dialogue on the transformation of the international financial architecture.

World Summit on Climate and Territories

  • 16 July 2015

About 800 representatives of local authorities and NGOs, economic actors, social partners, youth, women and scientists participated in the World Food Summit Climate and territories, on 1 and 2 July this year in Lyon, organized by leading international networks non-governmental actors involved in the issue. The reason for the opening of the summit is easy to understand: the negative impacts of climate change are already visible in our territories by rising temperatures and storms go, but also to floods or the opposite problem, drought and desertification.

The international political response to climate change began at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, where the ‘Rio Convention’ included the adoption of the UNFCCC. This convention set out a framework for action aimed at stabilising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The UNFCCC which entered into force on 21 March 1994 now has a near-universal membership of 195 parties.

The main objective of the annual Conference of Parties (COP) is to review the Convention’s implementation. The first COP took place in Berlin in 1995 and significant meetings since then have included COP3 where the Kyoto Protocol was adopted, COP11 where the Montreal Action Plan was produced, COP15 in Copenhagen where an agreement to success Kyoto Protocol was unfortunately not realised and COP17 in Durban where the Green Climate Fund was created.

In 2014, COP20 held in Lima attracted over 15,000 official delegates, and negotiators concluded talks with the ‘Lima Call for Climate Action’, a draft document that lays the foundations for a new global climate deal. Alongside COP20, there were more than 400 conferences in which new research projects and initiatives were presented.

In December 2015, the COP21, also known as the Climate Conference in Paris in 2015, will be conducted the first negotiations of the United Nations, more than 20 years to reach a legally binding agreement on climate change and universal, in order to keep global warming below 2 ° C

The conference is expected to attract nearly 50,000 participants, including 25,000 official delegates from government, intergovernmental organizations, United Nations agencies, nongovernmental organizations and civil society.

The objective of the Lyon summit was twofold:

  • Present the concrete commitments made by all regional actors. The greenhouse gas reduction announcements in Lyon should contribute to credibility warming scenario limiting warming to 2 ° C.
  • Defending specific proposals for commitments to the territorial actors to find their place in an ambitious agreement in Paris.

The commitments and proposals are being fed at the top of the work of 10 thematic workshops piloted by summit organizers networks.

At the end of the summit was issued a declaration entitled “Regional action in the centre of the response to the challenge of climate Lyon, Rhone-Alpes 2 July 2015”.

Fight against climate change, avoiding a rise in temperature greater than 2 degrees Celsius, with the prospect of a limitation to 1.5 ° Celsius, as adopted in the Cancun Agreements, is now a major challenge for the all humanity, a common obligation of States but also of all organizations and individuals able to act, each to be to assume its share of global responsibility. Gathered in Lyon, Rhône-Alpes Region for two days, through networks that represent these non-state actors, such as “relevant non-Parties”, alongside the Contracting Parties to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework on Climate Change), affirmed their shared commitment to meet this challenge, to register their own action, daily and territorial cohesion in a decarbonisation path of the global economy, taking into account different national, regional and local situations, and their capacity for action, while considering that they all need to consider the future of their company in a low carbon economy perspective and resilient. The World Summit Climate & Territories is not an isolated event and is in a process of strengthening common expressions of non-state actors. It builds on the previous resolutions of local authority networks, including roadmaps climate of local and subnational governments (Bali 2007 and Nantes in 2013), the Charter on Adaptation (Durban 2009), the Summit of Regions in Montreal (2005), Rio (2012) and Paris (2014), calls Bordeaux and Yamoussoukro (2015). It is also part of the following joint statements of non-state actors “Catalysing Action” (New York 2014), the declaration of Lifou (Oceania 21) and that of MEDCOP21 (Marseille 2015). He will feed the other stages of global mobilization of local actors (Ontario, Bogota …) to the Local Leaders’ Summit on Climate in Paris on 4 December. It represents a moment of participatory dialogue, commitments and proposal development between non-state actors, to a level of detail and representativeness never reached. In the diversity of our origins, our cultures and our sensitivities, we, the participants in this Summit, today collectively want to affirm our commitment and our convergences, and the importance of a collaborative approach in the fight against the deregulation Climate: We defend a territorial approach to climate action, we first consider that without a real territorial approach, taking into account economic, social, cultural and environmental realities, without coherence at this level of public policies and action capacity of all non-state actors, with strong demand for strengthening local and regional governance, the protection of fundamental rights and sustainable human development and sensitive to gender, then it will not be possible effectively fight against climate change. The 21th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), to be held in December 2015 in Paris, and will recognize the need for this territorial approach. We welcome favourably and defining a fourth pillar for success in Paris, say, “Going Solutions”, the action plan initiative of Lima-Paris, and underline our commitment to strengthen the ambition before and after 2020. We affirm the inseparability of global agreements on development and climate, the need for synergy between the negotiations on financing for development, the post-2015 agenda, Habitat III, and CDP / COP21: the control tools against climate change must also provide answers to other major challenges of this century, and vice versa: the fight against poverty, access to sustainable energy, water and other resources, sustainable urban development, development of rural territories, sovereignty food, population health, gender equality, decent work and rights of workers, including farmers, respect for indigenous peoples’ rights, protection of forests and biodiversity, preservation of natural resources … Affirm and show synergy is necessary to mobilize all stakeholders for the progressive elimination of greenhouse gas emissions. We insist particularly on adaptation actions must obviously reinforce the resilience and sustainable development of regions, rely on local and regional initiatives and traditional knowledge, on the need to ensure a just transition for territories, companies and their employees in this period of transformation towards a low-carbon economy, strengthening the influence of women and their ability to act, especially in territorial governance. We emphasize the fundamental role of education. Training the young generations, strengthen their response capacity are major challenges of a changing world. We emphasize the challenge of funding local actions. Mobilize new resources is an essential condition for strengthening local and regional capacities, have a strong global action by multiplication of local and regional actions. Our experience also emphasizes that the transition to a low carbon economy and resilient generate job creation, cost savings and improved quality of life through social and environmental co-benefits in many areas. We call for the strengthening of resources dedicated by governments and international financial institutions to the fight against climate change, the implementation of new mechanisms (secured borrowings green bonds, third-financing, integration of a price carbon in the economy) to leverage capacity for action. We advocate the integration of the private economic sector and union actors in this collective mobilization, the association of all local actors in the development, implementation and evaluation of projects, and a decentralized approach to issues energy. It appears essential that local authorities in developing countries have easy access to international funds, such as the Green Fund. Strengthening their ability to mount fundable projects should be a priority in the international agenda. We also consider relevant the study of the feasibility of specific funds dedicated to the territorial action, which can be topped up by communities or innovative financing. Faced with the diversification of funding (official development assistance, loans or public or private guarantees, assignment of revenue from carbon taxation, philanthropy …) we support an integrated approach to the synergy of these different sources, who are still working as often without coordination. We pledge to continue and strengthen our efforts in Lyon obligations borne by the responsible international networks, especially by mayors, presidents and heads of sub-national governments can make commitments on behalf of their territories, are a contribution most to building an agenda of solutions necessary for the credibility of climate stabilization scenario. These collective commitments are not theoretical; they are believable by the concrete result of many territories that have already managed to greatly lower their emissions of greenhouse gases, which have also initiated ambitious adaptation policies. The initiatives supported by local government networks, the Covenant of Mayors the Covenant of regions and federated states, and the Covenant of Mayors, reflect their will. We recommend regular and independent assessments of the actions, reliable and accessible postings avoided emissions. It is a condition of trust, such as compliance with funding commitments. To support this mobilization, we will strengthen the sharing of good experiences and support for project development, cooperation between local and subnational governments will consolidate dialogues and synergy of actions between all non-state actors, associate citizens’ men and women, to the joint construction of action plans and their implementation. Thus, in the wake of the World Summit workshops Climate & Territories, we are committed to support the development of action coalitions, bringing together all relevant actors, the sober carbon transport, development of renewable energy, the sustainable housing, access to sustainable energy, the right to food, etc. We therefore call on States to support the proposals developed collectively by the workshops of the World Summit Climate & Territories, proposals that were the subject of consensus and that strengthen practical intervention capacities of non-state actors, we ask them also all taken into account and to value their own contributions determined nationally (SCOND / INDC) actions of their non-state actors, and primarily those of their local and subnational governments. Our commitments, supported by a dynamic dialogue between non-state actors, experiences and diverse backgrounds should strengthen States in their own contributions to an agreement in Paris, robust, binding, equitable and universal, that is a clear message to the action of all in the service of public good. The answer to the climate challenge and must bring us to strengthen international regulations, cooperation between and within territories, equality and solidarity among the inhabitants of our planet to fragile balances. It is the belief that the answer to this challenge is through the action of all that unites us.