The renewable energy sector in Turkey is a new market for European companies?
The energy consumption in Turkey
In recent decades, Turkey has been one of the energy markets, which recorded the fastest growth in the world. The demand for electricity is approximately tripled over the last fifteen years (currently Turkey is the second country in the world-after China to increase energy demand).
The Energy-Environment sector one of the priorities of intervention necessary for the integration of Turkey into the European Union. For this reason, the country is called to invest 130 billion euro by 2023 (hundredth anniversary of the founding of the Republic).
The current demand projections for the period up to 2020 indicate that the average annual growth in demand will be between 6% and 8%. According to a moderate scenario, up to 2020 will require an additional capacity of 40,000 MW. The optimistic scenario, however, for the same period provides an additional capacity of about 60,000 MW. In this perspective, the need for investment in the electricity sector during this period is estimated to exceed $ 100 billion. Among all the countries of the southern and eastern Mediterranean, Turkey is thus the nation with the highest financing requirements for the energy sector.
The objectives in the energy sector that Turkey aims to achieve by 2023 are:
- Increase in installed capacity to 120,000 MW
- Increasing the share of renewable energy to 30 percent
- Maximizing the use of hydropower
- Increase in installed wind power capacity to 20,000 MW
- Installation of power plants with 600 MW of geothermal energy and 3,000 MW of solar energy
- Increased length of lines 60.717 km
- Once the capacity of the distribution of 158.460 MVA
- Increased use of smart grid
- Increase the storage capacity of natural gas to 5 billion m3
- Definition of stock exchange energy
- Commissioning of nuclear power plants (two nuclear power plants operating, and a third under construction)
- Construction of a coal with a capacity of 18,500 MW
The renewable energy sector
Turkey has the highest potential for hydropower, wind and geothermal energy in Europe. It also has a great potential of solar energy per year equivalent to 1.3 mega tonnes of oil equivalent since it is located between 36 and 42 degrees north latitude and 26 degrees east longitude and 45 and overlooks the Mediterranean Sea, the Sea Aegean and the Black Sea. Moreover, the potential annual biomass in the country is about 372 TWh. In other words, Turkey is privileged from the point of view of renewable resources. Despite this, the share of renewable energy in the total energy balance is negligible.
In 1970, primary energy consumption in Turkey was 19 Mtoe (221 TWh), reached 105 million Mtoe (1,221 TWh) in 2010 and, according to the official scenarios, it is expected to double, reaching 2,442 TWh in year 2020.
Today, fossil fuels such as natural gas, coal and oil supply nearly 90% of Turkey’s total primary requirement. In terms of supply of electricity, fuels, CO2-intensive have a market share of approximately 72%. The rest is met from renewable sources, of which about 89% comes from hydropower. Currently, only about 11% of the electrical energy is supplied from wind, geothermal, biomass and by the time that 77% of fossil fuels are imported, that is to say that 55% of the total consumption is covered by sources imported, the country can be considered to be extremely dependent on foreign sources. The main reason that explains the energy dependence is the uneven growth of new installed capacity in relation to the increase much faster than the demand, mainly due to the rapid expansion of the population and the economy. A second but equally important reason is the easy access to fossil fuels, natural gas and oil at relatively low cost, since Turkey as a transit country for such fuels. The scenarios mentioned above assume a constant dependence on imported fuels for years to come, subject to the nuclear option currently in progress.
According to estimates, about 70% of energy demand will be covered by imported fossil fuels; the remaining 30% will be met by domestic resources, of which about 60% from coal and lignite, about 30% from renewable resources and about 10% from other national resources. As a result, in terms of electricity, Turkey intends to meet by 2023 30% of estimated needs with renewable energy.
The State Turkish have undertaken several measures to exploit indigenous resources and increase the share of renewable energy sources to electricity production is to strengthen energy security, reducing dependence on foreign, that to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and combat climate change. Various incentives to encourage the production of electricity from renewable energy sources have been developed and promulgated by various laws. The key points of these laws cover a variety of incentives for natural and legal persons involved in the production of electricity from renewable sources; these incentives are explained in detail in the following sections.
Potential of renewable energy
Turkey has an estimated hydropower potential of 430 terawatt hours (TWh), which represents 1.1% of the global potential and the 13,75% of the EU’s potential. In theory, the hydroelectric potential of Turkey is able to meet up to 46% of its electricity needs by 2020 There are about 678 sites available for the construction of hydroelectric power stations, 172 of which are already under development. However, only 30% (130 TWh) of this potential is achievable. Approximately 97% of this economic potential lies in fourteen of the twenty-six river basins in Turkey.
In Turkey, the main rivers are located in the eastern regions. In essence, the system of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, with its vast catchment area and its high altitude, contributes to the abundant potential of the country, allowing the construction of large power plants. In addition to the above, the recent work on small hydropower generating further energy potential of 38 TWh per year. These small plants, built on an elevation and rivers having a lower surface drainage, are mostly located in the western areas.
Currently there are 172 operating hydroelectric power plants with a total installed capacity of 13.7 GW and an annual energy production amounted to 47.8 TWh. Other 94 stations, with a total capacity of 5.2 GW and an annual energy potential of about 17,560 GWh, are currently under construction. Additional 506 hydroelectric power plants will be built in the near future, reaching a total installed capacity of 63.24 GW and an annual production of about 155 TWh by 2020 on the basis of a study published recently by the Ent Hydraulic State on small hydropower, could be acquired an additional technical potential energy of about 5 TWh / year, 3 TWh of which seem economically feasible.
A percentage between 32% and 35% of electricity demand expected, between 440 and 480 TWh, can be satisfied by the energy produced by hydroelectric power plants.
Turkey has abundant resources related to solar energy, as it is located in a sunny belt between 36 and 42 degrees north latitude. The potential of the country is estimated at 1.3 billion tons of oil equivalent (15,120 TWh) and is distributed among the various regions. Most of these areas are suitable for the development of solar energy systems.
Due to the size of Turkey and the geographic location of each of its regions, the average annual total solar radiation and sunshine hours are different for each region. The average annual total radiation varies from a minimum of 1,120 kWh / m2 per year in the Black Sea region, with 1971 hours of sunshine a year, to a maximum of 1,460 kWh / m2 per year in south-east Anatolia with 2993 hours of sunshine. The averages of the other regions vary between these two limits. Assuming a standard installation of solar energy having a performance ratio of 0.75, the average annual electric potential varies between 1,118 kWh / kWp in the region of Eastern Anatolia and 815 kWh / kWp in the Black Sea region.
On the basis of studies conducted by YEGM, the average annual duration of sunshine in Turkey is 2640 hours to 7.2 hours per day and the total average solar radiation is estimated to be 1,311 kWh / m2 per year, for a total daily 3.6 kWh / m2, which correspond to annual potential of about 1,512 TWh.
Due to its geographical location, Turkey is under the influence of different systems of atmospheric pressure. During the winter, the high pressure system extends its area of impact as far as the southern latitudes of Turkey, causing strong winds from the north and especially from the north-east. Anatolia, in particular the western part, is under the influence of westerly winds and the North-West. During the summer, Turkey is influenced from the centre of the Azores high pressure which causes constant winds from the north, especially in the western regions of Turkey. The strong difference between the centre of this high pressure in the Azores and the low pressure centre of Basra to the east creates north-eastern winds in the eastern region. The southern regions, as well as those of the East, are generally under the influence of the winds coming from the south and southeast.
The technical potential of wind energy is estimated to be around 114 GW of capacity in the regions where the wind speed is higher. It is believed that approximately 20GW of this potential are economically exploitable. The calculations show that the technical exploitable potential is between 200 and 400 TWh. However, the economically exploitable potential is between 35 and 70 TWh and currently only 9-10% of it is used.
In Turkey there are a number of cities with relatively high wind speeds. These are been classified into six regions suckers which vary from a minimum of about 3.5 m / s to a maximum of 5 m / s at an altitude of 10 m, corresponding to a theoretical production between 1000 and 3000 kWh / (m2 year). The most attractive sites are the Marmara Sea region, the Mediterranean Sea, the Aegean Coast and Central Anatolia. Consequently, the main installed wind power capacity of Turkey is distributed between these regions, namely the Aegean, Marmara and Mediterranean.
In 2012, the geothermal potential of Turkey is estimated to be 31.5GWt and 4.5GWe, with a total installed capacity of 94.2 MW used directly as thermal and 104 MW converted into electricity. The high geothermal potential depends on the unique position of the country. Active tectonics on the band that joins the chain of the Alps and the Himalayas are no active volcanoes and young groundwater. Most of the geothermal energy potential is located in the Aegean and Central Anatolia. The proven geothermal capacity of existing wells and springs is about 4,078 MW.
The temperature of the fluids in geothermal fields determines the manner of use. Fields with a geothermal fluid at high temperatures are generally in the western part of Turkey, located beneath the graben (a depressed area located between parallel faults) formed as a result of the recent tectonic activity. In the regions of Central and Eastern Europe, there are sources of low and medium temperature zone located along the North Anatolian.
Potential of Biomass
The potential of natural biomass in the country is estimated to be around 372 TWh. This energy resource includes various agricultural residues such as grain dust, wheat straw, nuts and various types of waste. About 53% of the natural potential, 198 TWh, is suitable for the production of electricity.